The Pre-history of South African ‘Neo-Liberalism’: The Rise and Fall of Co-operative Farming on the Highveld

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 41, p.1239–1254 (2015)



A striking insight of analyses of neoliberalism has been the extent of elite continuity throughout. But there have also been significant changes. While, in the agricultural sector, much of the literature on agricultural co-operatives has highlighted their continued market dominance, this article focuses on the case of an unsuccessfully transformed tobacco co-operative in the small South African town of Mokopane. While state deregulation of the agricultural sector did not mean that all forms of associational support for farmers were lost, farmers there faced a more precarious position. A general decline in farming has resulted in significant changes in the nature of land utilisation. Mining and game farming have become the district’s economic mainstay. This article also highlights shifts away from communal, inter-personal forms of organisation within co-operatives well before the official coming of the neo-liberal epoch. None the less, the scope of decision-making by co-operative management was limited by the oversight of the Ministry of Agriculture, which functioned as a safety net of sorts, but also considered that the interests of ordinary farmers were best upheld by co-operatives remaining non-profit entities.

African Futures

As major transformations unfold, our understanding of Africa, its past, its future and its relation to the world seems to be caught between two contending paradigms. The first is shaped by the discourse of crisis and disaster, emergency and survival. The second is future-oriented. It is preoccupied with Africa’s shifting position within the global economy and its apparent rise, the material and virtual flows and the infrastructures that connect Africa to its diasporas and the broader world, and to the social and aesthetic experiences of its inhabitants. This project will take stock of the contending discourses on African futures. It aims at drawing together in robust conversation a broad range of parallel debates currently going on in areas as diverse as literature, science-fiction, music and digital technologies, economics, futures markets, demography and public health, environmental studies, arts, design and fashion. It will also tease out the theoretical and practical implications of these discourses and the extent to which Afro-futurism could be read against similar trends elsewhere, in China, India, Russia and Brazil in particular.

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